Sea turtles are reptiles remarkably suited to life in the sea. While typically thought of as mute, turtles make various sounds when communicating. The eggs of the largest species are spherical while the eggs of the rest are elongated.  Reanalysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa broadly enough for constructing the cladogram.  Once fertilization has occurred and an offspring has been produced, neither parent will provide care for the offspring once it is hatched. As mentioned above, the outer layer of the shell is part of the skin; each scute (or plate) on the shell corresponds to a single modified scale. An aquatic turtle has their eyes near the top of the head to enable them to hide from predators while the rest of the body is submerged in water. Geckos. The high extinction risk for Asian species is primarily due to the long-term unsustainable exploitation of turtles and tortoises for consumption and traditional Chinese medicine, and to a lesser extent for the international pet trade. , It has been reported that wood turtles are better than white rats at learning to navigate mazes. Using the draft genomes of Chelonia mydas and Pelodiscus sinensis, the team used the largest turtle data set to date in their analysis and concluded that turtles are likely a sister group of crocodilians and birds (Archosauria). Reptiles are vertebrates that have scales on at least some part of their body, leathery or hard-shelled eggs, and share a number of other features. , Turtles remain a part of the traditional diet on the island of Grand Cayman, so much so that when wild stocks became depleted, a turtle farm was established specifically to raise sea turtles for their meat. They can grow to over 130 cm (51 in) in length, and weigh about 300 kg (660 lb). A turtle's diet varies greatly depending on the environment in which it lives. These animals are most easily recognized by their dry, scaly skin. When turtles are kept in aquaria, small sheets of dead skin can be seen in the water (often appearing to be a thin piece of plastic) having been sloughed off when the animals deliberately rub themselves against a piece of wood or stone. (2012) recovered turtles as the sister group of lepidosaurs instead. All anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals, the hole has become the zygomatic arch).  The male approaches the female from the rear, and often resorts to aggressive methods such as biting the female's tail or hind limbs, followed by a mounting behavior in which the male clasps the edges of her carapace with his forelimbs and hind limbs to hold her in position. Its earliest known members date from the Middle Jurassic. , The flesh of turtles, calipash or calipee, has long been considered a delicacy in a number of cultures. The ocean-dwelling turtles spend their time in water and only leave to lay eggs in the sand. At least some turtles species can see color and different species prefer different colours.  For most semi-aquatic species and bottom-walking aquatic species, combat occurs less often.  About 75% of Asia's 90 tortoise and freshwater turtle species are estimated to have become threatened. There are several species of turtles with the largest being the leatherback turtle. Geckos are an exception to the solitary rule.  In the words of the biologist George Amato, "the amount and the volume of captured turtles ... vacuumed up entire species from areas in Southeast Asia", even as biologists still did not know how many distinct turtle species live in the region. They feed on plants, insects, small fish, and mollusks. , As food, traditional medicine, and cosmetics.  Some turtles spend much or all of their lives on dry land. Reptiles include turtles, lizards, snakes, alligators and dinosaurs (which include the birds: all birds are dinosaurs). Tortoises also shed skin, but dead skin is allowed to accumulate into thick knobs and plates that provide protection to parts of the body outside the shell. Turtles do not molt their skins all at once as snakes do, but continuously in small pieces. They are classified as part of Kingdom Animalia; phylum Chordata and class Reptilia. This dwarfs the better-known alligator snapping turtle, the largest chelonian in North America, which attains a shell length of up to 80 cm (2.6 ft) and weighs as much as 113.4 kg (250 lb).  Testudines, on the other hand, is based on the Latin word for tortoise, testudo.  Turtle soup has been a prized dish in Anglo-American cuisine, and in some parts of Asia.[which?] , The male scorpion mud turtle is an example of a bottom-walking aquatic species that relies on overpowering females with its larger size as a mating strategy. A group of turtles is known as a bale. The turtle’s shell has provided sufficient protection from predators for millions of years, but unfortunately is no match for a car tire. A majority of reptiles have lungs for respiratory purposes, but a few utilize other forms or respiration. These species swim in the same way as sea turtles do (see below). Like other amniotes, turtles breathe air and do not lay eggs underwater, although many species live in or around water. Like other reptiles, turtles are cold-blooded, their body temperature depends directly on the temperature of the air or water around them and they breathe air. Several small freshwater species are carnivorous, eating small fish and a wide range of aquatic life. However, because of their high metabolic rate, leatherback sea turtles have a body temperature that is noticeably higher than that of the surrounding water. Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Compared with freshwater turtles, sea turtles have very limited mobility on land, and apart from the dash from the nest to the sea as hatchlings, male sea turtles normally never leave the sea. What are reptiles and amphibians? They use their tongues to swallow food, but unlike most reptiles, they cannot stick their tongues out to catch food. Sea turtles typically feed on jellyfish, sponges, and other soft-bodied organisms. This means that strictly speaking all tortoises are turtles, but not all turtles are tortoises.  Both Pleurodirans and Cryptodirans use the quick extension of the neck as a method of predation, so the difference in retraction mechanism is not due to a difference in ecological niche.. , Nonetheless, the great majority of turtles exported from the US are farm raised.  Female choice is important in this method, and the females of some species, such as green sea turtles, are not always receptive. The farm also releases specimens to the wild as part of an effort to repopulate the Caribbean Sea. In the laboratory, turtles (Pseudemys nelsoni) can learn novel operant tasks and have demonstrated a long-term memory of at least 7.5 months.  These motions are largely due to the morphology and arrangement of cervical vertebrae. Their exact ancestry has been disputed. (2012) also suggest that turtles are a sister group to birds and crocodiles (the Archosauria)..  The American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists uses "turtle" to describe all species of the order Testudines, regardless of whether they are land-dwelling or sea-dwelling, and uses "tortoise" as a more specific term for slow-moving terrestrial species..  This placement within the diapsids suggests that the turtle lineage lost diapsid skull characteristics as it now possesses an anapsid-like skull.  Colloquially, the word "turtle" is generally restricted to fresh-water and sea-dwelling Testudines. These are large reptiles that live in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide. Turtles are reptiles of the order Chelonia /kɪˈloʊniə/ or Testudines /tɛˈstjuːdɪniːz/. This exposes her cloaca, and with it exposed, the male can attempt copulation by trying to insert his grasping tail. Reptiles are tetrapod meaning they walk on four limbs or are descendants of animals that walked on four limbs. While most turtles have webbed feet, some, such as the pig-nosed turtle, have true flippers, with the digits being fused into paddles and the claws being relatively small. All reptiles have scales made of several layers of dead skin. Turtles are not amphibians nor mammals. However, protein is essential to turtle growth and juvenile turtles are purely carnivorous. But, in fact, they are quite different. The carapace and plastron are joined on the turtle's sides by bony structures called bridges. The report is due to be updated in four years time allowing to follow the evolution of the list. , Male radiated tortoises are also known to use the force mating strategy wherein they use surrounding vegetation to trap or prevent females from escaping, then pin them down for copulation. Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia / r ɛ p ˈ t ɪ l i ə /, comprising today's birds, turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.The study of birds is called ornithology, while the study of the traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology. Shells are commonly colored brown, black, or olive green. One of the few exceptions is the African pancake tortoise, which has a flat, flexible shell that allows it to hide in rock crevices. Turtles are reptiles and not amphibians. Burton, Maurice and Burton, Robert (2002). Tortoises have rather heavy shells. Finally, human impact has threatened many reptil… Keratin also forms the scales of other reptiles. The most spectacular find of this kind to date occurred in 2009 in Shanshan County in Xinjiang, where over a thousand ancient freshwater turtles apparently died after the last water hole in an area dried out during a major drought.